Select books from list below:
Sampling, Aliasing, and Data Fidelity
Electro-optical Imaging System Performance (5th Edition)
Testing and Evaluation of Infrared Imaging Systems (3rd Edition)
Common Sense Approach to thermal Imaging
The Atmospheric Filter
Electro Optical Imaging: System Performance and Modeling
Holst's Practical Guide to Electro-Optical Systems



by W. Michael Farmer

The atmosphere acts like an optical filter that affects visual, infrared, and millimeter wave propagation. The atmospheric filter decreases image contrast and resolution. It reduces measured signal intensity for laser, radar, and non-imaging/radiometer systems. The effects of atmospheric filter sources depend on spectral band and the sensor type used to acquire data. The filter impacts sensor design, data acquisition, and data interpretation.

Engineers and technicians are provided the information necessary to understand and quantify sensor response. Meteorologists are provided guidance on the importance of instrument placement and measurement accuracy when performing remote sensing measurments. Students have access to a wide range of detailed information that supports their early entry into effective experimental design, data acquisition, and remote sensing data analysis.

Numerous approximations are used throughout both volumes. These provide valuable insights into, and a useful working knowledge of, the relationships between meteorology, the atmospheric filter, and remote sensor performance.


Volume I describes the atmospheric filter, its components, and its effects on remote sensors. Detailed texts supported by extensive figures illustrate the complex relationships that exist. The primary atmospheric gases, their concentration, absorption bands, and meteorological effects are discussed. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties are part of the atmospheric filter. Approximations are used to develop explicit expressions for computing aerosol spectral properties. Detailed examples of multi-modal dust size distributions for mixtures of dust grain size distributions and mineral types are provided. Gases, aerosols, and dusts have spectrally varying effects and therefore affect instrument performance differently. Detection of a distant target, radiometer data, and optical beam propagation depend upon the path length, atmospheric constituents, and spectral response of the sensor.

The physical properties of liquid, frozen, mixtures of precipitation, and fogs affect their radiometric properties. Examples of liquid water and ice effects on millimeter wave propagation are developed. Methods for classifying and measuring frozen precipitation are discussed. Case studies illustrate the effect of fog on remote sensors. The variation of fog characteristics with altitude is included.

108 figures, 20 tables, 94 references, 274 + xii pages (2001)


Meteorological conditions determine the dynamics and spatial variability of atmospheric filter sources. These conditions are characterized by solar position, cloud cover, visual range, spectral transmittance, wind, natural radiation, and atmospheric stability. Natural radiation affects visual and infrared system performance differently. Passive remote sensor models include visual band imaging systems, the human eye, and thermal band imaging systems. The human observer's perception is quite different than other remote sensor outputs. What you can see is not necessarily the same as what you measure. Both active and passive systems are explained in detail. Models for transmissometers and LIDAR systems are presented.

138 figures, 18 tables, 71 references, 336 + xxiv pages (2001).

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